SMS Based Grade Inquiry System Review of Related Literature
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Inquiry is an approach to learning whereby students find and use a variety of sources of information and ideas to increase their understanding of a problem, topic or issue of importance. It requires more than simply answering questions or getting a right answer. It espouses investigation, exploration, search, quest, research, pursuit and study. By inquiring, community involvement is strengthening and making them aware of what is happening in their environment. On the other hand, almost all student transactions is to get information, but their problem is the manual way of disseminating information. Currently, there are some universities and colleges which are converting their manual way and existing standalone data bases into an online based inquiry due to the reliability, speed, efficiency and more convenience of the web based inquiry method of providing information. There are other institutions that are still using not fully automated data bases in record keeping and the distribution of information. Moreover, they are still studying on developing a system that was fully accommodate the needs of the students and slowly converting the manual way into computerized data banking system. According to (Kuklthau, et.al. 2007), inquiring of grades is the most common transaction made by the students in school and it involves the performance and activities he/she attained. On the other hand, inquiry is used by the people in getting information regarding on the specific topic they wanted an answer.
Grading System Grading system is designed to provide incentive reward for achievement and assist in identifying problems of students. The grade of the student is a scale which determines students who need more improvement and require more assistance which will help teachers in guiding them towards their development. It also shows where the students excel most so they can be honed and encouraged to continue their good work improve more and aim higher. At the end, it was the reference for the judgments of whether a student can step up to a higher level of learning or remain to be polished. From these reasons, it is clearly concluded how important to it is to make sure that the grades of students are accurately calculated and safely stored in a well- founded database (Melvin, 2011). On the other hand, the grade of the students must store in the secured database for the safety and for easy retrieval of data for long term purposes. Furthermore, education is the first training ground for the students before sending it into the real world of challenge; therefore, the grades of the students must be secured wherein it is their credentials which was used for their own personal purposes in the future. According to (Sahin and Kucuk, 2013), in order for the reliability and efficiency as well as the speed to shorten the process of distribution of grades to the students, therefore, institution must provide a better way of rendering services and accommodating them well. Moreover, it creates a convenience way of providing information in which the students was more comfortable rather than in using a manual one.
Importance of Grading System Grade is the agent and treasure of the students; it shows the ability and excellence of the students in school during classes. Furthermore, the grade of the students is one of the essential qualities and products of school works. Grades reflect and measure the performance of a student and determine whether a student passes the subject or not. It also helps the professors to guide and facilitate the students’ learning development. Thus, students’ grades must be accurately calculated, safety accumulated or stored in a database and must be well distributed to the students. Knowing the grades at the end of every semester is the most awaited and most important part of individual student, particularly students in college (Bibeako, 2012). According to Babyruth and Grabrieldoy (2012), grade is the most important treasure of the students, especially the students in colleges. It is the credential of the students in entering to the next step of attaining their goals in life. It is the basis of the student in school which shows what are the achievements and the performance of the students. The grade is the weapon of the students when deploying in the real world of challenge, in order to secure the database and information of the students, especially the grades, therefore it should be enter and store in a firewalled database system for security reasons. The computerized database system is reliable and convenience compared to traditional way of inquiring grades which results to a slow processing and dissemination of information is obsolete. But, it will never end into the computerized database system only, the researchers study to improve the existing system and slowly converting all the automated databases into an online based wherein the reliability and convenience will attained.
Online Grading System Grading System is an exercise in professional judgment on the part of the teachers. It involves the collection and evaluation of evidence on students’ achievement or performance over a specified period of time. Through this process various types of descriptive information and measures of students’ performance are converted into grades that summarize students’ accomplishments. In consumption to the statement of (Balboa, 2013), online Grading System is a web-based application that can be use to store the students grades. It post the grades of the students online. The student has an account credentials to access their grades. Parents can view and be updated on the status and performance of their children in school. According to (Hearspiker and Verma 2011), Online grading system is the database system that is capable of encoding and viewing of student’s grades online in order for the process to be minimize, limit the amount of time consumed and easy retrieval of data for a long term period. Moreover, it is also a web-based applications that can be captivating and may obscure the fact that modeling an application’s business logic, whether it is being implemented in a web page, a component or an object remains the central focus of the project. Web-based application development requires project management best practice as much as any other type of application development. Moreover, the used of online based inquiry is not only for the consumption of the students but, it is more advantage to the parents and provides a way from which they can monitor the status of their children in school anytime and anywhere. The online system provides a way in which the communication between the university and the parents are still connected even though they are far from the school. Furthermore, according to (Cholzki, 2011), with the online grade inquiry system the parents can monitor their children in school even abroad. On the other hand, the importance of online grade inquiry system for the parents who are always busy in their own business provides a better way in which they can access their child’s grade online without spending their time in manually go to school just to inquire for the status and performance of their children. Importance of Online Grading System Through online grading system the limit of time and speed of the distribution of information not only the student grades is more efficient and convenience compared to the manual way of inquiring. Moreover, according to (Kapre, 2011), the home works of the students are now done online. Through this method, the students was more knowledgeable and encourage them to be more resourceful in terms of getting information and accessing the web systematically. Online home works will also benefits the instructors and faculty members. Furthermore, it is more convenient than in paper-based way of giving assignments to the students which tons of papers was used. The grades of the students in judging their output for their home works will automatically viewed and printed by the students at the end of the semester. There is no need to summarize the student’s grades as the system does that for the professor. On the other hand, the online grading programs can have a role in school/community relations. Properly managed, the online grading program can effectively and efficiently deliver timely information from the school to students and parents. Online grading programs are not difficult to set up and can be maintained with a minimum of effort. However, like all school reform, the use of an online grading system must be implemented thoughtfully and with determination. Teachers must all buy into the idea of an online grading system. Teachers must be trained to use the grading system effectively and efficiently.
Furthermore, according to (Jaentang and Jimson, 2013), the school administration will have an easier way of viewing grades to the students through internet, the professors do not need to go to school just to input the grades of students, the students will no longer to go to school just to check their grades if there’s already grades in office. Students can access/see their grades online from school or wherever they are. Standalone grading system is reliable, efficient, and fast but it is more usable if it was taking up to online or put it on a website. Moreover, using online grading inquiry system are very popular today and aside of being a service within the internet that allows faculty to submit grades to the school and making online applications is one of in demand opportunities around the world. In summary to the statements of the different authors regarding on the impact and importance of online grade inquiry system to the society, based on the result of their study, it is clearly stated that it is better and more efficient to use than in manual way of inquiring of grades to the registrar. Moreover, almost all universities from urban areas are now using the online based grade inquiry system. Furthermore, it is scientifically proven and tested the reliability and efficiency of the Online Grade Inquiry System by the other universities based on the result of their study. The coverage of the system is not only for the students consumptions but, it is more advantage to the parents where they was able to know the status and performance of their children in school. On the other hand, the researcher has encourage to propose a Web Based Grade Inquiry System in Notre Dame of Kalamansig – Kalamansig Campus in order to minimize the process of grade inquiry by using traditional method. In consumption to the statements of the authors, one factor that affects the rapid growth of students enrolled every semester is the well accommodation and the services rendered by the school is fully disseminate.
University of Finland SMS-Based Information System The Short Message Service (SMS) allows text-based messages to be sent to and from mobile telephones on a GSM network. Each message has a maximum length of 160 characters. The possibility of using SMS in Africa is growing rapidly high. It is mostly used for things such as medicine awareness and warning notifications. In Mozambique health workers can support diagnosis & treatment through Bulk SMS and even in Uganda, Malawi and Benin health education messages are sent by text messages. SMS based transactional alerts are SMS’s sent each time a change occurs in a bank account, for example, or when your credit card is used then you will get an SMS on your mobile phone. Marketing on a mobile phone has become increasingly popular ever since the rise of SMS in the early 2000s in Europe and some parts of Asia when businesses started to collect mobile phone numbers and send off wanted (or unwanted) content. Many applications need the ability to do real-time notification when events occur. Often the people who need to be kept aware of events are in a remote location. Cell phones have recently started being used in Africa for sending SMS-based information. These simple systems have already had a major impact. The reason why SMS gets through: With the massive growth and inadequate infrastructure in many countries, voice and where available IP are just not feasible unless there is massive investment to bring up the networks. SMS will get through even when the ‘network is busy’ for hours. Some of the possible services that exist are: car parking systems, M-learning, market information via SMS, automated agricultural answering system and many others. SMS messaging has already shown great potential. The FAO is using SMS messaging as a data transmission system for field workers wishing to send in agricultural reports. The Zambian farmer’s union uses SMS messages to distribute market prices. The SMS system has been more beneficiary for farmers in some part of African countries where they can send SMS through mobile and get the instant message reply for taking the decision for selling the crops at good price.
First bandwidth is extremely limited; it is not beneficiary to user and even tedious to find the market information. Especially in the context of African environment the farmers are using the mobile which does not need to be powerful smart phones with different features but in fact having the facility of sending the message to the server database from where they can get information back regarding the price of different commodities in market. The unavailability of the mobile phone network can affect the availability of the market price information. Still mobile phone technology is relatively more available in Tanzania. The awareness of the farmers is needed during the use of market information system so that farmers can benefit from it. With the intention of Multinational Corporation operating in Europe there is great implementation of SMS service in marketing or advertising. This medium is related to four factors (1) the ability to build brand image (2) the ability to use location based marketing (3) the perception of how the consumers accept SMS advertising ; and (4)the perception of technological infrastructure . The Europeans have responded positively to receiving to SMS advertising messages. The acceptance of SMS advertising is beginning to grow and may have potential to become an important new model of interactive marketing communication. Some issues concerning SMS-based systems are: a. Branding building effect b. Privacy/security concerns c. Location based marketing d. Technological condition Privacy/security concerns As several studies observes, the potential of mobile devices is growing throughout much of the developed world. However, the ownership of these devices does not guarantee that the consumers will readily accept mobile advertising. Clearly, consumer’s privacy concerns are an important issue to be taken into account. High levels of enthusiasm for SMS advertising and the consumers consents to receive the message . So I am hypothesizing that firm’s intention to use mobile advertising is negatively associated with perception of privacy and security concerns of mobile messaging. Location-based marketing Location-based services, such as the ability to provide features like weather forecast, restaurants guides, hotels maps, address finders, and traffic update have been cited as consumer friendly features of new media. Technological condition A related idea is the extent to which a country’s technological environment allows a sufficient high volume of consumers to adopt the technologies that would allow them to be reached by SMS advertising messages. So clearly, appropriate technology is more available in some countries than in others, a fact that is often determined by level of economic development. Automated Grading System with SMS Notification As computer Technology changes as such fast phase many business sectors try to cope up by upgrading computer System constantly in order to stay competitive. With the rapid growth of Technology today, there is no doubt that computer will become a common asset in all profession. Grading System means making the task for professors/instructors in computing and calculating grades. Grading System is designed to provide incentive reward for achievement and assist in identifying problems of students. The grade of the student is a scale which determines students who need more improvement and require more assistance which will help teachers in guiding them towards their development. Knowing grades especially at the end of the semester is the most awaited and most important part of individual students because it’s a way of measuring his/her performance whether he or she passes the subject or not. Unfortunately the most common problem encountered by these students is the delay of release of their grades. It is the important record to keep even for the longest time for the referral and credentials of the students to enter their next level of attaining their goals. It is the tract record that recognizes one student. This may be used for analyzing student attitude and values. Short Message Service (SMS) is a text messaging service component of phone, web, or mobile communication systems, using standardized communications protocols that allow the exchange of short text. Departmentalized Grade Inquiry System Software is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware. In contrast to hardware, software “cannot be touched”. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records. Indeed, new tasks can be accomplished by the use of software and people can communicate in ways never thought possible before.
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