Automatic Control Streetlights System using IR Sensor with Mobile App Support
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Automatic systems are being preferred over manual system. The research work shows automatic control of streetlights as a result of which power is saved to some extent. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist the users with muscular requirements of work, automation greatly decreases the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Basically, street lighting is one of the important parts. Therefore, the street lamps are relatively simple but with the development of urbanization, the number of streets increases rapidly with high traffic density.
There are several factors need to be considered in order to design a good street lighting system such as night-time safety for community members and road users, provide public lighting at cost effective, the reduction of crime and minimizing it is effect on the environment. At the beginning, street lamps were controlled by manual control where a control switch is set in each of the street lamps which is called the first generation of the original street light. After that, another method that has been used was optical control method done using high pressure sodium lamp in their system. Nowadays, it is seen that the method is widely used in the country.
The method operates by set up an optical control circuit, change the resistance by using of light sensitive device to control street lamps light up automatically at dusk and turn off automatically after dawn in the morning. Due to the technological development nowadays, road lighting can be categorized according to the installation area and performance, for an example, lighting for traffic routes, lighting for subsidiary roads and lighting for urban center and public amenity areas. The WSN helps in improving the network sensing for street lighting. Meanwhile, street light system can be classified according to the type of lamps used such as incandescent light, mercury vapor light, metal halide light, high pressure sodium light, low pressure sodium light, fluorescent light, compact fluorescent light, induction light and LED light.
Different type of light technology used in lighting design with their luminous efficiency, lamp service life and their consideration. The LED is considered a promising solution to modern street lighting system due to its behavior and advantages. A part from that, the advantages of LED are likely to replace the traditional street lamps such as the incandescent lamp, fluorescent lamp and High Pressure Sodium Lamp in future but LED technology is an extremely difficult process that requires a combination of advanced production lines, top quality materials and high-precision manufacturing process. Therefore, the research work highlights the energy efficient system of the street lights system using LED lamps with IR sensor interface for controlling and managing.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
To discover and develop the best method for a cost effective, most efficient
Specifically the study of aims:
- To develop a cost effective technology to utilize the streetlight as needed
- To achieve and introduce the most potential, cost effective and safe way for going home in evening to the people
- To develop the system that will determine the amount of the light using mobile
- To control the status of a specific street light through Mobile Support
- To train personnel in the method and development of automatic control system streetlight using mobile support.
- To monitor the status of street lights from any area through a Mobile Support.
- To test the effectiveness of the machines along with;
7.5 Cost Effective Reliable;
According to the proposed plan, initially when it becomes dark, all the street lights automatically glow for a few seconds and switches off. But throughout the night, only one streetlight remains switched on for security concerns. When a vehicle passes by, a block of street lights glows and as the vehicle moves forward, the next block of lights starts glowing where the previous block switches off. The street lighting systems are growing rapidly and going to complex with rapid growth of industry and cities. Power consumption and Cost Effectiveness are the important considerations in the present field of electronics and electrical related technologies. To control and maintain complex street lighting system more economically, various street light control systems are developed. These systems are developed to control and reduce energy consumption of a town’s public lighting system using different technologies. The existing work is done using HID lamps. Currently, the HID is used for urban street light based on principle of gas discharge, thus the intensity is not controlled by any voltage reduction method as the discharge path is broken.
HID lamps are a type of electrical gas discharge lamp which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube. This tube is filled with both gas and metal salts. The gas facilitates the arc’s initial strike. Once the arc is started, it heats and evaporates the metal salts forming plasma, which greatly increases the intensity of light produced by the arc and reduces its power consumption. High-intensity discharge lamps are a type of arc lamp.
Disadvantages of Existing System:
- HID lamps consume more power.
- The life time of the HID lamps is very less.
- It cannot be used in all outdoor applications.
- Brightness of the lights in the rear view mirrors which causes a problem for drivers in front of your vehicle.
Since the HID lamps are not cost effective and not reliable, smart street light system has overcome by replacing the HID lamps with LED. Due to automation, power consumption and cost effectiveness in the present field of electronics and electrical related technologies, industry of street lighting systems are growing rapidly and going to complex with rapid growth of industry and cities.
To control and maintain complex street lighting system more economically, various street light control systems are developed. These systems are developed to control and reduce energy consumption of a town’s public lighting system using different technologies which uses IR motion sensors to detect the vehicle movement after which the street light begins to glow. As the vehicle moves, the street light that was glowing switches off and the following lights begins to glow.
Arduino Uno R3
Arduino Uno R3 specifications are ATmega328 microcontroller, operating voltage at 5v, input voltage 7 to 12v, input voltage limit up to 20v, digital I/O pins 14, analog pins 6, DC current 40mA, flash memory 32KB including 0.5KB used by boot loader. SRAM of 2KB, EEPROM of 1KB and clock speed of 16 MHz some of the Features of Arduino UNO are power: can be USB connection or external power supply, with 7 to 12 volts recommended. The Arduino UNO provides power pins for other devices, the variants are 5v 3.3v and VIN IOREF pin for optional power.
Arduino Uno is a 2KB of SRAM and 1KB of EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory). There are various input and output pins where 14 of them are digital pins with serial transfer and external interrupts and PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) pins and 6 analog pins. Arduino differs from all the preceding boards which does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip.
An infrared sensor is an electronic device that emits in order to sense some aspects of the surroundings. An IR sensor can measure the heat of an object as well as detects the motion. These types of sensors measures only infrared radiation, rather than emitting it that is called as a passive IR sensor. Usually in the infrared spectrum, all the objects radiate some form of thermal radiations. These types of radiations are invisible to our eyes that can be detected by an infrared sensor. The emitter is simply an IR LED and the detector is simply an IR photodiode which is sensitive to IR light of the same wavelength as that emitted by the IR LED. When IR light falls on the photodiode. The resistances and these output voltages, change in proportion to the magnitude of the IR light received.