Smartcard Based Attendance Monitoring with SMS Review of Related Literature
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter includes different literatures related to the propose system. It discusses different systems and their functions. It also contains different theories that were found important in the making of the proposed system.
Smart Card Based Attendance System
In general, a smart card is an integrated circuit card with a memory capable of making decisions. This project can be used for recording the attendance of an employee in an organization or a student in a class. A smart card, chip card or integrated circuit card (ICC), is defined as any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits which can process information. This implies that it can receive input which is processed by way of the ICC applications and delivered as an output. In this project, we are using a contact smart card where the information inside the card is communicated to the card reader by inserting a card into the card reader. The card reader in this project used is an SR-90 SDK of 1KB memory size. The smart card reader contains a PIC 16F73 microcontroller, a voltage regulator, serial cable connections, and an LED which glows whenever a card is inserted into the reader and also it glows whenever it issues any command or receives any command.
A Smart Card Reader is interfaced with the microcontroller through a serial interface. RTC is interfaced with the microcontroller for real timing performance. A 3V battery can be connected to RTC DS1307 to avoid time disturbances caused by power failures. The microcontroller reads the time from RTC for every second. When the reader sends the data from the card to the controller, the controller compares this data with the data already stored and if it matches, the controller displays the timings of the student arrival and his details.
In this project, each student will be provided with a pre-programmed card where the card will be having the details of that particular candidate. The data in this card is read and written through demo software. The card reader will be present at the lecturer. When a student wants to register his attendance, he has to place his card into the reader and the reader reads this information and passes the same data to the controlling unit. Thus the microcontroller compares the data taken from the reader with the already existing data in its memory and if it is matched with the data in the program memory, it displays as authorized and records the timings along with the candidate details. If the data in the card is matched with the data in the program memory, then it displays unauthorized and a beep sound is produced. LCD is used to display the timings and other related messages.
This project uses regulated 5v, 500mA power supply. 7805 and 7812 three terminal voltage regulators are used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/12v step down transformer (nexttlabs.blogspot.com).
On Attendance Monitoring System using Smart Card
According to Amit, Anand and Gandhi(2008) the traditional procedure for maintaining the attendance record was to pass the attendance sheet during the lecture. This attendance sheet could constitute the status for only 4 – 5 sessions. So in order to calculate the attendance for entire term all such attendance sheets had to be assimilated. This procedure would require a lot of manual work. Our project is designed in such a way that the micro controller would automatically update the status of the attendance when the reader detects the card. This project would be user friendly as the student is only required to zip his card in order to mark his attendance (www.scribd.com).
On Attendance Monitoring System Using Biometrics and SMS Technology for Private High School
The study was developed by Caballes and Laureano(2014) the attendance monitoring system using biometrics and SMS technology for private high school. Specifically, it aimed to: design an attendance monitoring system of private high school with the following features: a. biometrics utilization for attendance monitoring system; SMS technology for giving information to guardian about the time of arrival and departure from school of their child. Biometric device are installed at School Entry/Exit gates or main lobby or outside each class room. These devices are connected with the School server housed in the school/ hosting on web accessible via Internet (www.studymode.com).
On Parent Alert System (PAS) via SMS
According to Mohamed Ahmed Imhmed of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM)(2009) the wireless technology is the most interesting technology in the ICT industry today. Alert system has widely used in many arias and types. The most one is using SMS to alert people or users and notify them about specific action. The study aims to design a web-based attendance system to help the teachers and parents to control the students if they absent from the school. The Parent Alert System (PAS) prototype is introduced to be used by the teachers in high schools. Charging scheme for SMS is out of the study scope (etd.uum.edu).
Parental Notification System SMS Alert for schools
Study of parents alert(2009) make communicating with parents quick, easy and hassle free while saving yourself hours of time and bags of cash! Parent alert offers extensive SMS, IVRS and Auto Dialer service to schools and colleges. Using our unique SMS software, it is possible for the schools and colleges to communicate parents of students. The school and college can communicate Exam / Test results, Home works, Attendance of the students, Holiday announcements, Meetings and important dates, Timetable, Parent alert was formed in January 2009 and specialize in helping improving communication with parents, whether you are a school, college or other voluntary organization. To this end we have a fantastic service that allows you to communicate with parents quickly and easily via text message (www.mystudentsprogress.com).
Student Attendance Monitoring and Identification System Using Barcode and Sms (Study on Sms Application)
According to Jinky Mallcudlo (2013) management team in school whether primary and secondary school use less computerized system in their management. Most of the schools in Isulan, Sultan Kudarat are using a manual process to monitor the student’s attendance. In a manual system, teachers will take and write down the student’s daily attendance in the record book, then at the end of the month the teacher is responsible to update the record by calculating the percentage of student’s attendance. Because of that, a computerized system that will be named Student Attendance Monitoring & Identification System using Barcode & SMS of INHS (Study on SMS Application) system has been proposed to be developed and implemented for management team in school. The target of this system is to monitor the daily student attendance and to inform parents about the attendance of their children. This system will be fully computerized and also apply a new communication technology called SMS. All of the daily students’ attendance will be saved in a specific database. When the student log-on by swiping their school ID on the system, it will automatically generate a message that will be sent to the hand phone via SMS (www.studymode.com).
On Student monitoring using fingerprint with sms alert to parents
Study of Lizah Gomez(2013), this system include the problem because after tapping a student QR code, that will send SMS log in or log out of each students to the mobile number of parents or guardian. To develop a computerized system that will identify the students if he/she is currently enrolled in school. The student’s lists from the registrar are transferred in the database. Through this, the system can easily identify currently enrolled of students. Sometimes, parents do not have privileged to send their children at school or to monitor their child. Parents usually give a hundred percent of trust to their child that entering the school. But this generation some students are skipping the time of class that may cause the absences in the subject. This system gives benefits to the parents. With doing this it helps to ease worries among the parents. Parents just make sure that their children are entering the campus (www.studymode.com).
The above mention related literatures are the systems that have a similarity to our propose system and it give us an idea in the making of our propose system. The difference is they are using a biometrics, punch card and a barcode while the system we are proposing will use a Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID).
The existing system focused on the student’s attendance monitoring while our system not only the student’s attendance we are focusing but also to the status of the students. We added a feature that will send notifications to parents or guardians if there are special events in school like meetings and releasing of cards.
Credit to the authors of the project
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