Library Management System Review of Related Literature and Studies
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter includes related literature and studies with regards to Library Management System. Below are following Foreign and Local Related Literature and Studies.
A computerized library system for a school keeps track of all books and periodicals in the library and their check-out status. The library system also interfaces with an external relational database which stores information about the library users (students, faculty, and staff), including whether they have any library items checked out. Library users can access the catalog and recall books and periodicals. Library employees have the same access as well as additional capabilities (e.g., listing the status of an item). (www.cs.missouri.edu)
Foreign Related Literature
The central Library which is called as mkce central Library, is one of the best equipped library in terms of facilities, books, back volumes, journals and non-book materials like CD’s, Audio cassettes etc… is functioning in mkce Campus in Thalavapalayam, Karur.
The Library started its service on 2000 as a part of mkce.The fully computerized Library Information Systems helps the staff and students tremendously in day-to-day operations.
The Library uses LIPS-i-NET software system with barcode scanning facility. Every document in the Library bears a barcode tag that is used for its circulation.
Similarly, all categories of users have a bar-coded identity card.
This puts it on par with the best modern libraries in keeping track of issues and returns in a foolproof manner. An Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) is available in the Library for searching of Library resources.
The Library follows open access system, encouraging the user to browse freely in the stack area.( http://www.mkce.ac)
Integrated Library Systems. ERIC Digest.
An automated library system usually consists of a number of functional modules, such as acquisitions, circulation, cataloging, serials, and an OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog). An “integrated” library system is an automated system, as described above, in which all of the functional modules share a common bibliographic database. The National Library of Medicine used the term “integrated” in referring to a system in which all automated library functions are processed against a single, master bibliographic file (Goldstein & Dick, 1980). Genaway (1984) expanded the definition and described the integrated online library system (IOLS) as “a library system that uses a common machine-readable database and has two or more subsystems operational and accessible online” (p.4).
In a system which is not integrated, there might be a bibliographic record in the catalog for a book and, if that book were to be checked out, there would be another bibliographic record for it in a circulation file. In an integrated system, there would be one bibliographic record for a book, probably created when the book was ordered, then expanded when it was cataloged. If that book were to be checked out, the patron record for the borrower would be attached to the bibliographic record, but there would not be a duplicate bibliographic record for the book in a circulation file. There are some systems which have duplicate bibliographic records but which are considered to be integrated because changes to bibliographic records are automatically propagated. For example, a change made to a bibliographic record in the acquisitions file would automatically be made to the duplicate bibliographic record in the catalog. In these quasi-integrated systems, movement between the modules and their duplicate files is facilitated by some type of linking mechanism. (http://www.mkce.ac)
Advantages of an Integrated System
An integrated system is superior in several ways to one which is not integrated. The duplication of effort to create and maintain multiple copies of bibliographic records is eliminated in an integrated system. Opportunities for errors are reduced when records are entered only once, and changes are automatically propagated throughout the system. Library staff and patrons can have access to all pertinent information at one location. For example, in an integrated system, a patron can view a bibliographic record in the online catalog and also see that the book has been checked out and when it is due back to the library. Of course, privacy of borrowers can be protected by preventing patrons from viewing borrower information. Also, patrons can tell by looking at the online catalog, in an integrated system, that a book has been ordered, but not yet received. In a system which is not integrated, that information would be available to library staff only through the acquisitions module. (http://www.mkce.ac)
Implementation and Management issues
Just as important as, or perhaps more important than, selecting the right system is the process of implementing that system in the library and dealing with the associated management issues. As described above, one of the main features and advantages of an integrated system is the sharing of bibliographic records among the various system modules. This single feature can have far reaching implications for the management of the library. Some organizational changes which have accompanied the implementation of integrated systems include:
- new patterns of communication among library staff, especially between technical services staff and public services staff;
- increases in responsibility and decision making among lower level staff; and
- increased requirements for all staff to acquire technical knowledge and skills.
Many libraries have redesigned their operations to take maximum advantage of the new technology. (http://www.mkce.ac)
Future Trends in Integrated Library Systems
The definition of an integrated system is beginning to change from a system which shares bibliographic records among local functions and modules to a system which exchanges information with many other systems outside of the library. Technological developments, such as client/server architectures and standardized protocols for passing information from one system to another, are facilitating this integration of outside information sources into local systems. For example, an online ordering system might allow a librarian to search a publisher’s bibliographic database, select records of books to be purchased, and download those records from the publisher’s database into the library catalog. Also, some libraries with expanded integrated systems offer patrons access, through their local OPACs, to other bibliographic and non-bibliographic databases both inside and outside the library and to OPACs of other libraries. (http://www.mkce.ac)
Automation for the School Library Media Center. ERIC Digest.
The thousands of school library media centers (LMCs) across the country that have automated their collection management operations have found that performance of routine tasks by staff and access to information by students and faculty have become a great deal faster and easier. Automation often begins with microcomputer-based circulation and online catalog systems, but the available capabilities and the potential for expansion extend far beyond these basic functions. This digest will focus on initial considerations for implementing an automated facility. (http://www.mkce.ac)
Automated systems are available for four basic management functions:
The CIRCULATION SYSTEM tracks the status of all LMC materials that circulate. It allows fast entry of borrowed items and easy identification of overdue accounts through records of all patrons. It prints overdue notices and establishes waiting or hold lists.
The ONLINE CATALOG provides instant access to catalog records as well as inventory data and brief acquisitions records via powerful interactive searching and help capabilities. It allows browsing as well as keyword searches on author, title, subject and other fields such as notes and copyright. Boolean logic can be used for complex searches. Searching is assisted by help menus, prompts, mouse pointing devices, and visual or audio tutors. The online catalog may contain other types of databases, such as journal indexes, and it may allow remote access from classroom, office, or home. The online catalog also contains a cataloging component to assist in developing MARC (machine-readable cataloging) records.
The ACQUISITIONS SYSTEM manages ordering functions, from entering order data through claiming items ordered but not received. It maintains financial records and publisher lists. It allows instant entry of records for newly acquired books with catalog records on disk or bar codes (sometimes these catalog records are part of the catalog module). Brief acquisitions records may be downloaded into the circulation system.
SERIALS CHECK-IN maintains records of journals, magazines, and other items received periodically. It tracks publication dates, maintains financial records, and generates claim notices for late items.
The software for these systems is designed for ease of data entry and flexibility in searching. Once the databases are set up, LMC staff can quickly enter updates and generate inventories and reports on collection use, overdues, and budgets. (http://www.mkce.ac)
Local Related Literature
DLSU Library System Services
The Systems Services (SS) unit is responsible for the development, implementation, and maintenance of the computerization and information technology plans and programs of the DLSU Library. It oversees the day-to-day administration of the different computer hardware and software facilities, operations and applications that are essential in the delivery of automated library services. It works closely with the Information Technology Center (ITC) of the university in the provision of computer and network facilities and services that respond to IT requirement of the library. (http://www.mmsu.edu)
University Library System (ULS)
The establishment of the University Library System since 1980 is one of the most significant achievements of the Universities development programs. Today, the library has improved tremendously in terms of organization, quality of personnel, materials, facilities and services. It is some kind of a phenomenon none like it before in this part of the country definitely contributing awe and respect to the stature an aura of excellence of the University. Such trend of development is clearly, though not yet sufficiently, in accordance with the obsession of no other than former President of the Republic, Ferdinand E. Marcos when he said:
“It is true that there are other systems of information or carriers or vehicles, but the traditional and most permanent one is the library with its shelves of books and audio-visual materials. We, in the third world believe that development cannot be achieved without parallel development of libraries and information systems.”
The library system contributes to the attainment of the goals of MMSU by providing the reference and reading materials required in the various phases of the programs implemented by the University. It is a place for work and study, thus, it becomes a part of the way of life of the universities constituents and the members of the general public who use its services. (http://www.mmsu.edu)
Foreign Related Studies
Feasibility Study for an Automated Library System
This study was initiated by the Newfoundland Public Library Services (NPLS) to assess the feasibility of automation for the library services and to determine the viability of an integrated automated library system for the NPLS. The study addresses the needs of NPLS in terms of library automation; benefits to be achieved through the introduction of automation; automation requirements and costs; cost of automation in relation to potential cost savings; staffing requirements for automation; and a recommended approach to automation. The report focuses on the following areas: (1) needs analysis (headquarters, technical services department, provincial reference and resource library, St. John’s City (Newfoundland, Canada) libraries, regional libraries, books-by-mail); (2) functional requirements for the application software; (3) system options (technical requirements, software options, microcomputer equipment, estimated costs); (4) database creation and management (existing machine-readable records, options for catalogue maintenance with the integrated library systems, issues affecting the decision, estimated costs); (5) management of an automated library system (staffing, training, estimated costs); (6) the costs and benefits of library automation (quality of service to NPLS clientele, networking, efficiency, accuracy and timeliness of library routines, management information, cost-benefit analysis); Conclusions and recommendations are provided in addition to tables and appendices related to the topical issues addressed in this report. (http://www.eric.ed.gov)
Linux Can Change the Face of Automated Library Information Systems
MLA Abstract 2005 (Case Report) Title: Linux Can Change the Face of Automated Library Information Systems Authors/Affiliation: Janis Teal, AHIP, Deputy Director for Library Services, The University of New Mexico Health Sciences Library and Informatics Center; Greg Gaillard, Deputy Director for Technology Support, The University of New Mexico Health Sciences Library and Informatics Center Objective: This poster will report on how the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Library and Informatics Center (UNM HSLIC) faced the dilemma of replacing an antiquated library information systems (LIS) server in a cost-effective manner that would make use of $10,000 available funding, improve system functionality and performance, and decrease overall system costs. Setting: HSLIC is a medium-sized academic health sciences library running Innovative Interfaces, Inc. (III) LIS software. In 2003 the LIS (with 180,000 catalog records) was running on a 7-year old DEC Unix system with unsupported hardware, a CPU with inadequate response time, and full disk drives. Method: Recognizing the need to upgrade the system, the Deputy Directors analyzed several options: 1) combining systems with the main campus libraries; 2) purchasing a new Compaq Alpha server at $20,000; or 3) implementing a Linux-based LIS running on Intel ‘commodity’ hardware. We selected option 3 and, at the conclusion of the project, became the first library in the United States to implement III LIS software on a Linux server. HSLIC employees in both library services and technology support consulted with III staff throughout the process of configuring the server, updating the III software, and migrating records. Main Results: 1) The project successfully upgraded hardware, the operating system, and application software to current III standards. 2) There was a significant increase in performance and functionality. 3) This implementation was accomplished at 1/3 the cost of using a non-Intel server platform. 4) The Linux-based Intel system represents significantly decreased hardware capital and maintenance costs. 5) There is no longer a need for the library to have in-house DEC Unix expertise, an intangible but significant cost savings. 6) Additional intangible cost savings are expected in the future when, in contrast to standard server hardware, the new hardware running Linux can be repurposed after the current system is upgraded. Conclusion: A small to mid-sized library can effectively run a Linux/Intel LIS system at demonstrably lower cost than doing so on proprietary RISC*-based software/hardware. *Reduced Instruction Set Computing. (https://repository.unm.edu)
Advancing Your Library’s Web-Based Services. ERIC Digest.
Libraries will be utilizing the Web to provide services to an increasingly sophisticated and demanding computer user. The mission of the Cleveland Public Library (CPL) is “to be the best urban library system in the country by providing access to the worldwide information that people and organizations need in a timely, convenient, and equitable manner.” The institutional values that influenced the development of the mission put the emphasis on information and people. The best way to ensure that the access and outcome of information services is timely, convenient and equitable is to develop Web-based services that mirror and improve traditional in-house and telephone services. This clear understanding of the Web as a service delivery method and not just as a digital brochure results in a project development path leading to both self-services and live, librarian mediated services offered online and 24×7.
A successful project incorporates the following steps in this path:
- Clarify the core values and mission.
- Build a team of entrepreneurial staff.
- Scan the online environment for ideas.
- Set a course and a timeline.
- Find library and community partners.
- Market and build customer relations.
At the core of planning for Web-based services is the goal of replicating and enhancing traditional library services in an online environment. Not surprisingly, a survey of 1,500 library users conducted in May, 2002 at the CPL branches and main library confirmed that circulation, reference, services for young people, and readers’ advisory were the most popular draws to the local library. A well-rounded, service-oriented approach to developing a library’s Web presence requires attention to all four of our patrons’ priorities. (http://www.mmsu.edu)
As the online services of our for-profit competitors grow, so do our patrons’ expectations. Our clientele demands the same tools from the library’s Web site that they benefit from on commercial Web sites. Our patrons shop, bank, invest, and communicate via the Internet. They make little distinction between what they can do in commerce and what they would like to do via their library Web site. To meet patron expectations, the Cleveland Public Library has introduced a package of online self-help services allowing patrons to better manage their borrowing.
The Web catalog, shared among 31 library systems in Northeast Ohio with reciprocal borrowing agreements (the CLEVNET Consortium), allows for self-initiated requests. The MyAccount feature allows patrons to manage their own accounts. Online renewal has been the most popular aspect of this feature, and in fact it rivals the circulation of the busiest CPL branch with a circulation of over 375,000 in its first nine months. In addition, patrons can delete requests and review outstanding fines. This is timely and convenient for patrons, and it saves a great deal of staff time and attention.
Accounting for more savings is the NetNotice e-mail notification service. Patrons sign up through a Web form to obtain their pickup and overdue notices via e-mail. They can also register to automatically receive their MyAccount information in an e-mail message every week on a designated day. The e-mail message includes the online renewal functionality for those e-mail programs that support it.
Statistics show that, had it not been for one-half million online renewals, the library’s circulation would have decreased in 2001. Future opportunities to enhance library services include the ability to register for and obtain a library card number online as well as to pay fines and fees via a credit card using a secure Web interface. With so many resources available to the online user, it is contradictory to require a patron to be physically present in a library to obtain the authority to use them. The library card number is the gateway to 110 remote databases and thousands of e-books. Another service in the works is home delivery of requested library materials. Currently patrons can choose from 96 possible pickup locations in Northeastern Ohio. Soon, they will be able to choose delivery to their home or office. (http://www.mmsu.edu)
Cleveland Public Library and the CLEVNET consortium created and launched a live Web reference service on June 11, 2001. KnowItNow24X7 is a remarkable achievement using an efficient and effective project management process. The 20-year consortium relationship of the 31 CLEVNET libraries is based on a shared automation system that CPL owns and manages. CLEVNET libraries, and our contracted overnight service provider have answered over 17,000 questions.
Cleveland Public Library was prepared to take many of the financial and technological risks associated with this aggressive and innovative project, but the combined creativity, staff talent and commitment made the project a success. Although CLEVNET is the first to have launched a 24×7 public library live Web reference service, many such services quickly followed, including 24/7 (Metropolitan Cooperative Library System in California), Smarty Pants (Denver), and Q&A NJ (New Jersey).
KnowItNow24X7 librarians utilize the complete resources of the Internet and the CLEVNET subscriptions to over 110 online databases. They can even scan documents available in print collections and send them to the patron via Adobe Capture. It is essential that the public have access to the full range of resources. Live Web reference offers the opportunity to demonstrate Internet searching strategies, introduce subscription databases, and showcase unique materials in the collection.
The Cleveland Law Library is a CLEVNET member. This association enables KnowItNow24X7 users to access both the special collection and the staff of professional law librarians when the information needs are beyond the scope of traditional public library service. Since legal and medical information are traditionally problematic areas for public library reference staff, establishing a partnership with Metro Health Systems, Cuyahoga County’s public hospital, presented an exciting enhancement to live information. Nursing staff already trained to answer a 24×7 phone line embraced the KnowItNow24X7 service and are ideal partners for public librarians. (http://www.ericdigests.org)
Local Related Studies
University Library Modernization
Library automation enabled the electronic Union Catalog of the UPD network of 33 libraries, including the Extension program in Pampanga and the Main Library with more than 800,000 records, accessible within the campus and through the World Wide Web. These libraries already have barcoders, barcode labels and keepers, magnetic strips, sensitizers-desensitizers and gate for Circulation purposes, and as part of their library security system. A number of records were converted from paper to digital format. The former system used by the University Library prior to the present MAELISA. Also converted from paper files were 58,536 bibliographic records of five Filipiniana and Special Collections: (1) Book analytics, i.e. biographies, illustrations, plays, short stories and speeches contained in books; (2) Unclassified Monographic Records including art works and personal collections of Teodoro Agoncillo, Roberto Concepcion, Oscar Evangelista, Guillermo Guevara, Eliseo Pajaro, Estrella Solidum, Emanuel Soriano and Abelardo & Trinidad Subido; (3) Positive prints of the Harnish Collection; (4) Posters File; (5) Vernacular Collection including Bikolano, Cebuano, Pampango and Tagalog. (http://uplibrarybulletin.files.wordpress.com)
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